Introduction of Chinese Ceramics
China is one of several ancient civilizations with a long history in the world, and has made many significant contributions to the progress and development of human society. Achievements in ceramic technology and art are of particular importance. In China, the production of ceramics can be traced back to 4500 BC to 2500 BC. It can be said that an important part of China's development history is the history of ceramics. The achievements of Chinese people in science and technology and the pursuit and shaping of beauty are embodied in many aspects through ceramics production, and form very typical technical and artistic characteristics of each era.
More than a thousand years before the mastery of porcelain technology in Europe, China had been able to produce quite exquisite porcelain. From the perspective of the development history of Chinese ceramics, the term "ceramics" is generally divided into two categories, namely, ceramics and ceramics. Pottery is generally referred to as clay and ceramic stone products without compact sintering, whether colored or white. Among them, the part with higher firing temperature and better sintering degree is called "hard pottery" and the one with glazing is called "glazed pottery". Relatively speaking, clay or ceramic stone products with high temperature firing, compact matrix sintering and good glaze quality are called "porcelain". The development of Chinese traditional ceramics has gone through a rather long historical period with complicated types and special technology. Therefore, the classification of Chinese traditional ceramics needs to take into account not only the rigid technical indicators, but also the traditional customary classification methods and the changes in the understanding of ancient and modern science and technology, so as to reach a more effective classification conclusion.
The relationship between Tang Tri-color Porcelain and Pottery is inseparable. When part of the raw materials mixed with kaolin (or natural glaze such as feldspar, quartz, lime) and other natural color ingredients such as copper oxide, iron oxide, lead oxide etc. are used in sintering pottery, they will naturally form a thin glaze on the surface of pottery (the first three colors of Shinle pottery in Japan appeared in this way). In the history of China, before the Ming Dynasty, plain porcelain (without decorative patterns, with the purity of color as the standard) was the main type of Chinese porcelain. After the Ming Dynasty, painted porcelain was the main popular porcelain. Another porcelain-making country, Japan, has also developed its unique tea wares with the tea ceremony cultural circles. The earliest plain porcelains were classified according to their colours. There were three common colours of celadon, black porcelains, white porcelains, painted porcelains and other coloured porcelains. The famous ones were Tang Sancai (Tang Sancai is not porcelains, but low-temperature lead pottery), Xinle firing and blue-and-white porcelains. For example, China's Zhejiang Yue kiln (Secret Ceramics), Jiangxi Changnan, Hebei Ding Porcelain and Japan's characteristic porcelains developed after the 10th century: Shigarakiyaki in Jinjiang, Jiahe, aritayaki in Nagasaki and bizenyaki in Okayama Prefecture. In addition, Europe began to manufacture porcelain since the 18th century, and now Britain, France, Russia, Germany and other places, especially Britain, have established a number of high-grade porcelain brands.
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